Edits to Excerpts do not qualify you for the Research Assistant Badge.
Retagging a question does not qualify you for the Editor badge.
It looks like you may qualify for the Organizer badge though, maybe. The actual 'retagging' ability isn't actually available to you until 500 rep, but now that anyone can put in a suggested edit that doesn't matter as much. ...
That old edits make questions come up in the reopen queue is by design. If a question has been edited after being closed, it is now eligible for reopening.
In regards to questions showing up multiple times - this has been fixed.
1st) There's a shortcut to the FAQ: [faq] and an extended one to the different topics: [faq#TOPIC], where TOPIC is the id/name of the headline/anchor.
Example: Link to the [faq]
Example: Link to the "What kind of questions can I ask here" [faq#questions]
Note: This doesn't work in questions/answers, but in comments and in chat.
2nd) I also have a Gist ...